Study Details Currently Enrolling

Pathway to Prevention screening is the first step for all TrialNet prevention studies. Screening is offered free to relatives of people with T1D to evaluate their personal risk of developing the disease. This unique screening can identify the early stages of T1D years before any symptoms appear. It also helps researchers learn more about how T1D develops and plan new studies exploring ways to prevent it. 

  • Relatives of people with T1D are 15 times more likely to develop the disease than the general population. 
  • Increased risk of developing T1D is linked to the presence of five diabetes-related autoantibodies.
  • The JDRF, ADA and Endocrine Society now classify having two or more of these autoantibodies as early stage T1D

Who Can Participate

You qualify for free risk screening if you: 

  • Are between the ages of 2.5 and 45 years and have a parent, brother/sister, or child with T1D (ages 3-45 in the United Kingdom)
  • Are between the ages of 2.5 and 20 years and have an aunt/uncle, cousin, grandparent, niece/nephew, or half-brother/sister with T1D (ages 3-20 in the United Kingdom)
  • Have not been diagnosed with diabetes

Please Note:
TrialNet  currently does not offer re-screening. 
Do not register if previously screened as negative in TrialNet. 
Your sample cannot be used and will be destroyed.


Screening Options

Screening is free, quick, convenient and super important. Only a small blood sample is needed. TrialNet screening is available by appointment at one of our many locations worldwide. We also offer two options for test kits that can be mailed directly to you: 

  • In-home Test Kit: This kit provides everything you need to collect a blood sample (~10 drops) using a finger-stick.  Please note, if you choose this option, you will also be asked to come to a TrialNet location for a blood draw if you were unable to collect enough blood for our lab to analyze or you/your child tests positive for one or more diabetes-related autoantibody. 
  • Lab Test Kit: You can take this kit to any Quest Diagnostics or LabCorp lab for a blood draw (click here to find your closest Quest lab and here for your closest LabCorp). Or, if you don’t have a Quest or LabCorp lab near you, we can help you arrange for a blood draw at a local lab or doctor’s office.

Participant Experience

T1D risk screening will detect if you are in the early stages of T1D. Nearly all people that test positive for two or more diabetes-related autoantibodies will develop the disease.

Understanding Your Results

Circled minus sign

Negative: Lower Risk

No autoantibodies

No diabetes-related autoantibodies (AAB) detected.

What it means:

Individuals with no autoantibodies are considered to be at low risk for developing T1D. This does not guarantee you will never develop autoantibodies or T1D.

Next Steps:

There are no next steps to take at this time.  Data collected over the past 20 years from Pathway to Prevention risk screening suggests that it is uncommon for those without autoantibodies to later develop multiple autoantibodies, so TrialNet does not currently offer further testing.

Illustration of one autoantibody

One AAB Positive: Lower risk

One autoantibody (AAB) detected

What it means:

Individuals who have one AAB are at higher risk for developing T1D in their lifetime than those with no autoantibodies.

Next Steps:

Get another blood test in one year to see if you have developed more than one autoantibody. We will let you know of any type 1 diabetes prevention trials that you might be eligible for.

Illustration of two autoantibodies

2+ AAB Positive: Early Stage T1D

Two or More AAB

Two or more autoantibodies (AAB) detected.

What it means:

Individuals who have two or more autoantibodies are already in early stage T1D. The immune system has started attacking insulin-making beta cells. The lifetime risk of developing clinical diagnosis (stage 3) approaches 100%.

Next Steps:

Come in for a study visit that will include an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT).  It will show if you have abnormal blood sugar levels and help us determine if you are eligible for a prevention study or further close monitoring for development of T1D.