Waiting for My Results

For Screening Participants

If you live in the U.S., it takes 4-6 weeks to get your screening results. Outside the U.S. it takes a little longer to allow for shipping. In the meantime, here’s some information to look over.

Why do results take so long?

TrialNet forwards all samples from screenings and studies to specialized laboratories across the U.S. This way, all samples are processed in a consistent way, meeting strict requirements for scientific research. The process takes a little longer, but it’s an important step in ensuring you receive the most accurate results.

What do my results mean?

Please follow along below to see where you may be on TrialNet’s Pathway to Prevention.

NEGATIVE (no autoantibodies)

If your test results are negative, it means no diabetes-related autoantibodies are present at this time. You are currently at lower risk than someone who tests positive. This is not a guarantee you will never develop T1D, because your autoantibody status can change. Participants younger than 18 years old who are negative for all autoantibodies, may be offered rescreening opportunities.

IMPORTANT: The younger you are, the faster the disease can progress. Symptoms of T1D can come on quickly and be life-threatening. If you or someone you know has symptoms of T1D, be sure to see a healthcare professional right away.


If you test positive for one autoantibody, you will be offered annual retesting for the development of additional autoantibodies. 

If you test positive for two or more autoantibodies, you are in the early stages of type 1 diabetes. Your next step is to come in for further testing. An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) will show if you have abnormal blood sugar levels. The test results will tell us whether you qualify for a prevention study or monitoring.

What are antibodies and autoantibodies?

Antibodies are proteins made by the body to protect it from “foreign” substances, such as bacteria or viruses. They are important to our survival. Sometimes antibodies are misdirected and mistakenly attack normal cells. These are called autoantibodies. People develop type 1 diabetes when their bodies make autoantibodies that destroy the body's insulin-making beta cells. 

TrialNet looks for up to five autoantibodies that signal an increased risk for T1D:

  • GAD65A (called GAD)
    Present years before a T1D diagnosis, pancreatic islet cell (GAD) autoantibodies are highly predictive of a predisposition to T1D and other endocrine disorders. 
  • ICA
    Islet cell autoantibodies (ICA) are also highly predictive of T1D. Sometimes present years before diagnosis, they increase significantly before onset of T1D.
  • Islet Antigen 2 (IA-2A)
    Tyrosine phosphatase-related islet antigen 2 (IA-2) is often targeted by islet cell autoantibodies. Nearly 90% of all children show evidence of this autoantibody at onset.
  • Microinsulin Auto-Antibody (mIAA)
    The mIAA autoantibody, which is specific to insulin, is somewhat predictive of T1D on its own. When detected along with other autoantibodies listed here, it’s a strong marker for T1D.
  • ZnT8A
    Highly predictive of T1D, ZnT8A is a zinc transporter that increases likelihood of diagnosis, especially in combination with GAD or ICA autoantibodies.

There may be other autoantibodies yet to be discovered. Your participation in TrialNet research will help us discover more about T1D and how to prevent it.